The Mercedes driver also cut title rival Sebastian Vettel's championship lead from 20 points to one, after a late puncture for Vettel dropped him from third to seventh.
Hamilton's team-mate Valtteri Bottas was the beneficiary of Kimi Raikkonen's own puncture with two laps to go, passing the Ferrari to secure a 1-2 for the team, having started in ninth position.
Raikkonen recovered to take third, but only after Vettel got his puncture at Brooklands moments after the Finn's own.
The two Red Bull's were fourth and fifth, Max Verstappen going missing after a wheel-to-wheel battle with Vettel, and a slow pit-stop, with Daniel Ricciardo rising through the field to take 10 points.
Nico Hulkenberg was a strong sixth for Renault, with Vettel in seventh.
In a roles reversal of Canada, Sergio Perez felt he was held up by Esteban Ocon, with the two Force India's coming home in eighth and ninth, with the Williams of Felipe Massa taking the final point in 10th.
<div class="getty embed image" style="background-color:#fff;display:inline-block;font-family:'Helvetica Neue',Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;color:#a7a7a7;font-size:11px;width:100%;max-width:594px;"><div style="padding:0;margin:0;text-align:left;"><a href="http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/815534950" target="_blank" style="color:#a7a7a7;text-decoration:none;font-weight:normal !important;border:none;display:inline-block;">Embed from Getty Images</a></div><div style="overflow:hidden;position:relative;height:0;padding:66.666667% 0 0 0;width:100%;"><iframe src="//embed.gettyimages.com/embed/815534950?et=l7VpNMxHTmB5T9-xnMW0mg&tld=co.uk&viewMoreLink=off&sig=QbWRuzL3m7OQGE28V7tD5JX9YKxlI7iEr0WJ6D_hCrY=&caption=true" width="594" height="396" scrolling="no" frameborder="0" style="display:inline-block;position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;margin:0;" ></iframe></div><p style="margin:0;"></p></div>
Palmer fails to start
On the formation lap, Jolyon Palmer reported a brake-by-wire issue and then lost all hydraulics, causing him to post a DNS and the race to be reduced to 51 laps, with an extra formation lap.
At lights out, Verstappen, from fourth was able to split the Ferrari's, with Vettel getting a slow start, before going around the outside of the Red Bull into Village. Verstappen came back around the outside of The Loop.
Hamilton had a comfortable gap to Raikkonen, who was pulling away from the slower Verstappen and held-up Vettel.
This led to Vettel trying to pass Verstappen, but the Red Bull driver was firm in his defence, which included the two dicing wheel-to-wheel at Stowe into Club, but Verstappen just remaining ahead, after forcing the Ferrari out wide.
It was Ferrari who then blinked first, bringing Vettel in to try and undercut Verstappen.
On the next lap, Verstappen had no question but to respond, but the Red Bull stop was slightly slower and Vettel was able to get the jump on the Dutchman, who then fell back.
Meanwhile, Hamilton was in complete control, easily pulling the gap on Raikkonen to a total of 12 seconds by the time he switched to the soft compound Pirelli's on lap 25.
He was rarely seen thereafter and eased to a fourth successive win at Silverstone, and fifth overall, drawing him level with Jim Clark and Alain Prost.
Bottas and Ricciardo scyth through the field
Bottas, starting on soft tyres, was quickly moving up the top 10, and was helped in his pursuit of a podium place by the Verstappen-Vettel duel in the first stint.
The Finn was briefly held up by Hamilton as the Brit emerged just ahead after his pit-stop, but Bottas dropped back and was able to push again.
Vettel was beginning to struggle with his tyres, which led to Bottas trying around the outside of Stowe, but being forced wide before a massive lock-up from Vettel into Club.
On lap 43, Bottas passed Vettel on the Hanger Straight for, what at the time seemed to be third place, as he then set off after fellow Finn Raikkonen.
Ricciardo, was annoyed after an early mistake at Woodcote dropped him to last, but he recovered to finish a fine fifth, having started on the back-row, with Stowe being the prime overtaking spot.
<div class="getty embed image" style="background-color:#fff;display:inline-block;font-family:'Helvetica Neue',Helvetica,Arial,sans-serif;color:#a7a7a7;font-size:11px;width:100%;max-width:594px;"><div style="padding:0;margin:0;text-align:left;"><a href="http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/815368798" target="_blank" style="color:#a7a7a7;text-decoration:none;font-weight:normal !important;border:none;display:inline-block;">Embed from Getty Images</a></div><div style="overflow:hidden;position:relative;height:0;padding:66.666667% 0 0 0;width:100%;"><iframe src="//embed.gettyimages.com/embed/815368798?et=PI1KPv5WRD1NPXwufkeYDA&tld=co.uk&viewMoreLink=off&sig=igh3K2zmatpAs16LOg4RqIqpTvILerW2EGsf9otG4nY=&caption=true" width="594" height="396" scrolling="no" frameborder="0" style="display:inline-block;position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;margin:0;" ></iframe></div><p style="margin:0;"></p></div>
Late punctures for Ferrari
On lap 49 of 51, Raikkonen was visibly slower as the left-front had delaminated, causing Vettel to pass him as the Ferrari limped back to the pits.
However, on the next lap, Vettel's own front-left went pop, in a more dramatic fashion, dropping him to seventh.
Verstappen was in a position to capitalise, but Red Bull pitted him to ensure that he did not suffer the same fate.
After a bad Friday morning, Hulkenberg bounced back to score six points for Renault, ahead of Ocon, Perez and Massa.
Kvyat at it again
On the opening lap, Carlos Sainz Jr passed Danill Kvyat into Copse, but the Toro Rosso's soon cam together at Becketts, the Russian running wide and slamming into his team-mate, for which he received a drive-through penalty.
Stoffel Vandoorne was 11th for McLaren, ahead of the Haas duo of Kevin Magnussen and Romain Grosjean.
Kvyat was beaten to 14th by the Sauber of Marcus Ericcson, with Lance Stroll a dissapointing 16th for Williams.
Pascal Wehrlein received the wooden spoon for coming home last of the classified finishers, in 17th, one lap down.
As well as Sainz being taken out, and Palmer not starting, Fernando Alonso was forced to retire the McLaren with a lack of power, while running well out of the points positions.
|4th||Max Verstappen||Red Bull||+52.125s||12|
|5th||Daniel Ricciardo||Red Bull||+1:05.955s||10|
|8th||Esteban Ocon||Force India||+1 lap||4|
|9th||Sergio Perez||Force India||+ 1 lap||2|
|10th||Felipe Massa||Williams||+ 1 lap||1|
|11th||Stoffel Vandoorne||McLaren||+ 1 lap||0|
|12th||Kevin Magnussen||Haas||+ 1 lap||0|
|13th||Romain Grosjean||Haas||+ 1 lap||0|
|14th||Marcus Ericsson||Sauber||+ 1 lap||0|
|15th||Danill Kvyat||Toro Rosso||+ 1 lap||0|
|16th||Lance Stroll||Williams||+ 1 lap||0|
|17th||Pascal Wehrleinn||Sauber||+ 1 lap||0|
|DNF||Carlos Sainz Jr||Toro Rosso||Collision||0|